The EU Clean Energy Package (CEP) was finalised in June 2019 after the publication of its final texts in the Official Journal of the European Union, following trilogue negotiations between the European Commission, Council, and Parliament. It includes eight legislative texts - four directives and four regulations - on the electricity market and consumers, energy efficiency and the energy efficiency of buildings, renewables and bioenergy sustainability as well as governance of the Energy Union. In this
report, we will focus on three of the eight legislative texts. First is the Regulation on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action (Regulation (EU) 2018/1999). Second is the directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (Directive (EU) 2018/2001) that is commonly referred to as RED II. Third is the directive on common rules for the internal market in electricity (Directive (EU) 2019/944). We will assess the impact of this legislation on the European
internal electricity market rules compared to the framework established by the Third Energy Package. In this report, we present the background to the CEP provisions and weigh the possible implications of these measures.
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China has always upheld multilateralism and has advocated the use of multilateral mechanisms to jointly address global climate change issues. This paper discusses what China does and why, and how [...]
Around 75% of European cargo transport operations in terms of ton-kilometers are performed by trucks, which, in turn, entail massive environmental and societal impacts. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, road [...]