A multitude of articles in the Clean Energy Package (CEP) Directive on common rules for the internal market for electricity (e-Directive) guide Member States (MS) to innovate in new domains related to the electricity system.2 In short, these articles set principles lining out the boundaries for the implementation of national regulatory frameworks. At the same time, these same new domains fall within the scope of network code areas identified in the CEP Regulation on the internal market for electricity (e-Regulation).3 More precisely, in Art. 59 of the e-Regulation areas are described for which binding Commission Regulations can be developed. Some of the network code areas in Art. 59 were already described in the Third Energy Package, which preceded the CEP, and lay at the basis of eight network codes and guidelines which are currently in force. The new e-Regulation added some new network code areas and amended some existing ones. The general idea is that innovation with regulation at MS-level, triggered by the e-Directive, can in the longer term serve for inspiration for new network codes or guidelines at EU-level or for amendments of existing ones.
Additionality is a key requirement for the renewables based electricity to be used by electrolysers to produce renewable hydrogen. Additionality could be defined as the requirement that renewables-based electricity used [...]
China has always upheld multilateralism and has advocated the use of multilateral mechanisms to jointly address global climate change issues. This paper discusses what China does and why, and how [...]
Around 75% of European cargo transport operations in terms of ton-kilometers are performed by trucks, which, in turn, entail massive environmental and societal impacts. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, road [...]