A multitude of articles in the Clean Energy Package (CEP) Directive on common rules for the internal market for electricity (e-Directive) guide Member States (MS) to innovate in new domains related to the electricity system.2 In short, these articles set principles lining out the boundaries for the implementation of national regulatory frameworks. At the same time, these same new domains fall within the scope of network code areas identified in the CEP Regulation on the internal market for electricity (e-Regulation).3 More precisely, in Art. 59 of the e-Regulation areas are described for which binding Commission Regulations can be developed. Some of the network code areas in Art. 59 were already described in the Third Energy Package, which preceded the CEP, and lay at the basis of eight network codes and guidelines which are currently in force. The new e-Regulation added some new network code areas and amended some existing ones. The general idea is that innovation with regulation at MS-level, triggered by the e-Directive, can in the longer term serve for inspiration for new network codes or guidelines at EU-level or for amendments of existing ones.
Different measures for carbon leakage prevention across Emissions Trading Systems (ETSs) may distort economic competition between firms. The same is true of competition between jurisdictions if decisions on the location [...]
The global litigation of standard essential patents (SEP) is taking a new turn with the jurisdictional battle between national courts. Some courts have started issuing anti-suit injunctions (ASI) to prohibit [...]
This paper investigates the possible dynamics that may emerge in an economy in which agents adapt to environmental degradation by increasing the produced output to repair the damages of environmental [...]
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