A multitude of articles in the Clean Energy Package (CEP) Directive on common rules for the internal market for electricity (e-Directive) guide Member States (MS) to innovate in new domains related to the electricity system.2 In short, these articles set principles lining out the boundaries for the implementation of national regulatory frameworks. At the same time, these same new domains fall within the scope of network code areas identified in the CEP Regulation on the internal market for electricity (e-Regulation).3 More precisely, in Art. 59 of the e-Regulation areas are described for which binding Commission Regulations can be developed. Some of the network code areas in Art. 59 were already described in the Third Energy Package, which preceded the CEP, and lay at the basis of eight network codes and guidelines which are currently in force. The new e-Regulation added some new network code areas and amended some existing ones. The general idea is that innovation with regulation at MS-level, triggered by the e-Directive, can in the longer term serve for inspiration for new network codes or guidelines at EU-level or for amendments of existing ones.
In 2022, we experienced an unprecedented energy crisis. Governments intervened to help consumers pay their bills and to apply revenue claw-back mechanisms on utilities. ACER identified a total of 400 [...]
The Performance Review Commission (PRC) is an independent body supported by EUROCONTROL with a remit to review and report on the performance of European air traffic management (ATM). While performance [...]
Electricity is used for railway traction. With the 4th Railway Package, traction current became excluded from the Minimum Access Package to be provided by the Infrastructure Managers (IMs) and was [...]
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