The Electricity Journal, 2009, Vol. 2, No. 7, pp. 81-86One fairly unique feature of France is that it hosts a large ?eet of nuclear reactors. It is owned by the incumbent, EdF, and provides this 85-percent state-owned enterprise with an economic advantage to compete on price. Moreover, because the energy mix in continental Europe is unbalanced, French nuclear power generation bene?ts from an extra scarcity rent which is likely to last for a long time. Since the opening of the retail market to competition in July 2007, the allocation of this rent and the survival of EdF.
Additionality is a key requirement for the renewables based electricity to be used by electrolysers to produce renewable hydrogen. Additionality could be defined as the requirement that renewables-based electricity used [...]
China has always upheld multilateralism and has advocated the use of multilateral mechanisms to jointly address global climate change issues. This paper discusses what China does and why, and how [...]
Around 75% of European cargo transport operations in terms of ton-kilometers are performed by trucks, which, in turn, entail massive environmental and societal impacts. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, road [...]