In this report we focus on the fundamentals of energy and climate policy as reformulated in the EU Green Deal. The 2022 edition includes updates following the publication of the Fit for 55 Package and the EU Hydrogen and Decarbonised Gas Markets Package. The reader is guided through the landscape of EU climate and energy policy. Starting with the big picture of the foundations of energy and climate policy, we then move to discussing in more detail European climate policy, security of supply and energy networks. We continue with energy wholesale and retail markets, and finish with a closer look at energy innovation. Each chapter is divided into several sections, aiming to give the reader a broad overview of the areas of climate and energy policy that are impacted by the EU Green Deal. The references at the end of each section serve as suggestions for further reading on each topic.
Economic regulators of water and sanitation services (WSS) across Europe were originally established to address harmful consequences arising from the natural monopoly of the sector. This is reflected in their [...]