There is a very large cost-effectiveness potential for the implementation of offsets under Emissions Trading Schemes (ETSs). The scientific literature highlights that heterogeneity in offset provisions between prospective partners in an ETS linkage should be addressed for the sake of linking, but is not regarded as a priority.Co-benefits of offset projects are typically insufficiently incentivised, while adverse impacts have been reported on the local communities. In general, the experience with the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) can greatly inform offset provisions design. Experts at the Carbon Market Policy Dialogue share insights on the most successful offset provisions. The Paris Agreement and its Article 6 can foster ETS linking, but requires additional coordination by prospective partners on key aspects.
Economic regulators of water and sanitation services (WSS) across Europe were originally established to address harmful consequences arising from the natural monopoly of the sector. This is reflected in their [...]