Energy system models are needed to help policy makers design renewable energy policies that combine support for renewable electricity with support for renewable gas. In this paper, we advance a stylized model that includes demand for electricity, heating, and hydrogen in industry that is supplied by competing technologies. We first show that the status quo in most countries, which is a combination of carbon pricing with support for renewable electricity, only supports green gases indirectly and in a limited way. When we then add direct support for renewable gas to the model, we have two main findings. First, a Renewable Energy Sources - Gas (RES-G) target is more effective in supporting biomethane than in supporting green hydrogen. Second, there are strong interaction effects between a RES-E target and a RES-G target that can be both complementary and substitutive.
Investment has always been a challenge in the network industries. Since the 1990s liberalisation has exacerbated this challenge, owing to the different time horizons between the interests of the private [...]
• Energy system integration (ESI) is the process of coordinating the planning and operation of the energy system as a whole, addressing different sectors, their markets and infrastructure as interconnected [...]
This report was prepared to inform the Carbon Market Policy Dialogue (CMPD) between the European Commission, as the regulator of the EU Emissions Trading System, and the regulatory authorities for [...]
Additionality is a key requirement for the renewables based electricity to be used by electrolysers to produce renewable hydrogen. Additionality could be defined as the requirement that renewables-based electricity used [...]
China has always upheld multilateralism and has advocated the use of multilateral mechanisms to jointly address global climate change issues. This paper discusses what China does and why, and how [...]
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