This report was prepared to inform the Carbon Market Policy Dialogue (CMPD) between the European Commission, as the regulator of the EU Emissions Trading System, and the regulatory authorities for the emissions trading systems (ETSs) of California, Quebec, China, New Zealand and Switzerland. The report deals with the implications of linking ETSs that differ from each other in the measures for carbon leakage prevention. The report provides a conceptual framework and summarizes the relevant scientific literature; it describes the current status of the six ETSs represented in the CMPD and, finally, it offers up a few ideas for discussion.
Investment has always been a challenge in the network industries. Since the 1990s liberalisation has exacerbated this challenge, owing to the different time horizons between the interests of the private [...]
• Energy system integration (ESI) is the process of coordinating the planning and operation of the energy system as a whole, addressing different sectors, their markets and infrastructure as interconnected [...]
Additionality is a key requirement for the renewables based electricity to be used by electrolysers to produce renewable hydrogen. Additionality could be defined as the requirement that renewables-based electricity used [...]
China has always upheld multilateralism and has advocated the use of multilateral mechanisms to jointly address global climate change issues. This paper discusses what China does and why, and how [...]
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