This study seeks to answer a simple question: will we have enough renewable electricity to meet all of the EU's decarbonisation objectives, and, if not, what should be the priorities and how to address the remaining needs for energy towards carbon neutrality? Indeed, if not, the policy push for green hydrogen would not be covered by enough green electricity to match the “energy efficiency and electrification first” approach outlined in the system integration communication, and a prioritization of green electricity uses complemented by other solutions (import of green electricity or sustainable fuels, CCS...) would be advisable . On one hand, we show that the principle “Energy efficiency and electrification first” results in an electricity demand which will be very difficult to satisfy domestically with renewable energy. On the other hand, green hydrogen and other sustainable fuels will be needed for a carbon neutral industry, for the replacement of the fuel for aviation and navigation, and as strategic green energy reserves. The detailed modelling of these interactions is challenging, given the large uncertainties on technology and infrastructure development. Therefore, we offer a “15 mins” decarbonization scenario based on general and transparent technical considerations and very straightforward “back-of-envelope” calculations.
The EU ETS with companion policies is more robust than relying solely on either regulatory or carbon-pricing interventions. Policies should be developed to account for the disparate impacts of the [...]
Customers are expected to play a fundamental role in the transition to a decarbonised and digitalised energy system. However, experience so far suggests that customer engagement in energy markets cannot [...]
This deliverable, which is part of the Horizon 2020 OneNet project, outlines the alignment activities carried out in OneNet Task 3.4, focusing on integrating the proposed electricity market concepts with [...]
Flexibility involves the adjustment of energy consumption or generation schedules to benefit the grid, for instance, providing services such as balancing, congestion management, and voltage control. Flexibility can be offered [...]