This study seeks to answer a simple question: will we have enough renewable electricity to meet all of the EU's decarbonisation objectives, and, if not, what should be the priorities and how to address the remaining needs for energy towards carbon neutrality? Indeed, if not, the policy push for green hydrogen would not be covered by enough green electricity to match the “energy efficiency and electrification first” approach outlined in the system integration communication, and a prioritization of green electricity uses complemented by other solutions (import of green electricity or sustainable fuels, CCS...) would be advisable . On one hand, we show that the principle “Energy efficiency and electrification first” results in an electricity demand which will be very difficult to satisfy domestically with renewable energy. On the other hand, green hydrogen and other sustainable fuels will be needed for a carbon neutral industry, for the replacement of the fuel for aviation and navigation, and as strategic green energy reserves. The detailed modelling of these interactions is challenging, given the large uncertainties on technology and infrastructure development. Therefore, we offer a “15 mins” decarbonization scenario based on general and transparent technical considerations and very straightforward “back-of-envelope” calculations.
In 2022, we experienced an unprecedented energy crisis. Governments intervened to help consumers pay their bills and to apply revenue claw-back mechanisms on utilities. ACER identified a total of 400 [...]
The Performance Review Commission (PRC) is an independent body supported by EUROCONTROL with a remit to review and report on the performance of European air traffic management (ATM). While performance [...]
Electricity is used for railway traction. With the 4th Railway Package, traction current became excluded from the Minimum Access Package to be provided by the Infrastructure Managers (IMs) and was [...]
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