In line with the EU vision for a carbon neutral economy by 2050, the role of gas in the energy mix is expected to change considerably over the coming years – not only will gas volumes be shrinking, but more profoundly, gas generation and consumption will be transformed. Such changes have wide reaching implications for the sector, including the suitability of infrastructure and allocation of its costs to different uses. The current EU tariff model of charging on the basis of consumption well supported the transition from a vertically integrated organisation of the gas industry, to a single liberalised market. However, if the network persists with this approach the recovery of its costs will be based on charges on an increasingly small number of consumers. Moreover, as regions decarbonise at different speeds or choose different energy pathways, these dynamics will develop differently across the EU. Redesigning the tariff charging methodologies can avoid these potentially unfair allocations of costs. This Report explores different tariff methodologies to assess their advantages and drawbacks within the context of the expected new conditions of the gas sector, as well as the potential policy implications.
Additionality is a key requirement for the renewables based electricity to be used by electrolysers to produce renewable hydrogen. Additionality could be defined as the requirement that renewables-based electricity used [...]
China has always upheld multilateralism and has advocated the use of multilateral mechanisms to jointly address global climate change issues. This paper discusses what China does and why, and how [...]
Around 75% of European cargo transport operations in terms of ton-kilometers are performed by trucks, which, in turn, entail massive environmental and societal impacts. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, road [...]