The Covid-19 pandemic and the consequent lockdown exacerbated energy poverty and insecurity for millions of customers worldwide. Many governments introduced emergency measures to protect energy consumers in this very delicate phase. We review and classify the policies implemented across the five continents, identifying potential inefficiencies, but also best practices. Our review reveals the need to improve the targeting of these financial aid programs to reach only households economically affected by the outbreak. We put forward regulatory recommendations to enhance the targeting and financing of these much-needed relief measures, with the aim to take the most out of the available resources. The aid should be better channelled through the energy assistance programmes already in place, considering not only the current income, but also the one before the crisis.
Highlights: Current estimates of marginal abatement costs suggest that achieving zero or net-zero emissions requires much higher carbon prices than ever experienced. Depending on how well they are addressed, competitiveness [...]