/ Publications / Why not call a margin squeeze a margin squeeze?
Why not call a margin squeeze a margin squeeze?
06 September 2019
At the end of October 2018, Ofcom issued its first abuse of dominance infringement decision and fine under the Competition Act 1998 against Royal Mail. Perhaps surprisingly, Ofcom did not examine the behaviour as either a margin squeeze or a refusal to supply, the types of cases one would expect in post (and communications) services. Instead, it looked at it under the old-fashioned banner of price discrimination. We consider that the way Ofcom approached the analysis is unlikely to provide helpful guidance to the industry and critically does not provide a useful basis for concluding whether Royal Mail’s behaviour has led to exclusion and consumer harm.
Additionality is a key requirement for the renewables based electricity to be used by electrolysers to produce renewable hydrogen. Additionality could be defined as the requirement that renewables-based electricity used [...]
China has always upheld multilateralism and has advocated the use of multilateral mechanisms to jointly address global climate change issues. This paper discusses what China does and why, and how [...]
Around 75% of European cargo transport operations in terms of ton-kilometers are performed by trucks, which, in turn, entail massive environmental and societal impacts. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, road [...]