This paper explores a number of major options that the EU could consider if the decision is made to enhance the EU Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC). It shows that the options are varied, with significant differences in terms of additional mitigation effort, political will and environmental impacts. These options have been discussed through workshops with stakeholders and policy makers and an online survey. The survey asked participants to rate the political and social acceptability, as well as competitive, international and environmental impacts of 9 options for enhancing the EU NDC set out in this paper. The results of these efforts to gather input and foster discussion are analysed at the end of the paper.
Additionality is a key requirement for the renewables based electricity to be used by electrolysers to produce renewable hydrogen. Additionality could be defined as the requirement that renewables-based electricity used [...]
China has always upheld multilateralism and has advocated the use of multilateral mechanisms to jointly address global climate change issues. This paper discusses what China does and why, and how [...]
Around 75% of European cargo transport operations in terms of ton-kilometers are performed by trucks, which, in turn, entail massive environmental and societal impacts. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, road [...]