The purpose of this paper is to provide with an updated snapshot of the water and sanitation sector across Latin American countries, focusing of its key policy characteristics. Access to water and sanitation in the region has improved since the 1990s, decade during which almost every country adopted major reforms of the sector, consisting mainly in increasing private sector participation and the creation of autonomous regulatory bodies. We find that challenges remain in tariff design, service quality, financial health of the sector, and in governance issues related to a lack of coordination between the level of decentralization of the regulation and management of the sector. Finally, the paper provides with a review of the related empirical literature.
• Measuring, reporting and then accounting for fugitive methane emissions will be an important part of any decarbonisation strategy in the future. Natural gas is a relatively low-carbon fossil fuel [...]
Over the past two years (2018-2019) European aviation has been confronted with serious capacity challenges and high levels of delay. Subsequently, the Covid-19 pandemic has revealed that the European airspace [...]
The recast of the Electricity Directive (EU) 2019/944 in the Clean Energy Package entitles the European Commission to adopt implementing acts specifying interoperability requirements and non-discriminatory and transparent procedures for [...]
Demand-side flexibility can be incentivised to reduce the need for investment in distribution grids either implicitly or explicitly. Implicit demand-side flexibility is when prosumers react to price signals triggered by [...]