In this study we investigate the role played by the state as controlling shareholder in setting CEO incentives. Analyzing listed telecommunication companies from 13 European countries during 1999-2013, we measure the difference between the state and a private dominant shareholder in setting CEO compensation packages. We find that state control curbs the level of CEO compensation and this effect weakens as the state’s ownership stake increases. When we focus on CEO incentive compensation, we report that CEO pay for performance sensitivity is higher for state controlled firms than for private firms. However, as the state’s ownership stake increases, differences in sensitivity tend to disappear, but the effect of governance variables commonly used to proxy entrenchment becomes statistically significant.
Additionality is a key requirement for the renewables based electricity to be used by electrolysers to produce renewable hydrogen. Additionality could be defined as the requirement that renewables-based electricity used [...]
China has always upheld multilateralism and has advocated the use of multilateral mechanisms to jointly address global climate change issues. This paper discusses what China does and why, and how [...]
Around 75% of European cargo transport operations in terms of ton-kilometers are performed by trucks, which, in turn, entail massive environmental and societal impacts. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, road [...]