This report describes and scrutinizes hydropower regimes through a unified analysis framework to ensure their comparison on an equal basis. This framework is structured around 4 blocks: (1) the institutional framework of hydropower regimes (e.g. type of rights to use hydropower, authorities granting rights to use hydropower, etc.); (2) the framework for granting right to use hydropower (duration of rights and procedure, competitive process and existence of a possible EC infringement procedure); (3) the obligations of the hydropower operator (environmental and investment obligations and royalties); and (4) small hydro characterisation and support schemes.
Additionality is a key requirement for the renewables based electricity to be used by electrolysers to produce renewable hydrogen. Additionality could be defined as the requirement that renewables-based electricity used [...]
China has always upheld multilateralism and has advocated the use of multilateral mechanisms to jointly address global climate change issues. This paper discusses what China does and why, and how [...]
Around 75% of European cargo transport operations in terms of ton-kilometers are performed by trucks, which, in turn, entail massive environmental and societal impacts. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, road [...]