We analyze alternative capacity pricing schemes (access charges) to implement an open-access railway system in Tanzania. We show that the implementation of variable access charges widely used in the railway industry may result in levels of traffic lower than the traffic operated by an integrated railway company. We propose the use of fixed access charges to avoid this problem and discuss the main advantages and disadvantages to implement them in the context of multiple freight train services in Tanzania.
Additionality is a key requirement for the renewables based electricity to be used by electrolysers to produce renewable hydrogen. Additionality could be defined as the requirement that renewables-based electricity used [...]
China has always upheld multilateralism and has advocated the use of multilateral mechanisms to jointly address global climate change issues. This paper discusses what China does and why, and how [...]
Around 75% of European cargo transport operations in terms of ton-kilometers are performed by trucks, which, in turn, entail massive environmental and societal impacts. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, road [...]