We analyze alternative capacity pricing schemes (access charges) to implement an open-access railway system in Tanzania. We show that the implementation of variable access charges widely used in the railway industry may result in levels of traffic lower than the traffic operated by an integrated railway company. We propose the use of fixed access charges to avoid this problem and discuss the main advantages and disadvantages to implement them in the context of multiple freight train services in Tanzania.
This report was prepared to inform the Carbon Market Policy Dialogue (CMPD) between the European Commission, as the regulator of the EU Emissions Trading System, and the regulatory authorities for [...]
Low-carbon hydrogen is expected to play a key role in the European energy transition. The production of hydrogen using electricity in an electrolysis process is a promising route. However, depending [...]
Energy communities are gaining increasing relevance in the transition toward more decentralized, decarbonized and digitalized energy systems. They represent a heterogeneous phenomenon, a characteristic that explains the difficulty in providing [...]
Starting from 2018 ‘Year of Multimodality’, the European Commission has put together a number of legislative and policy initiatives relating to better infrastructure, connections, incentives and digital solutions, with a [...]
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