In recent decades, all infrastructures have undergone significant restructuring. This worldwide phenomenon is often labelled 'liberalization' and although expectations were high with respect to lower prices, greater efficiency and innovation, the expected gains have not always been fully realized. This extensive, state-of-the-art Handbook provides a comprehensive overview of the various experiences of liberalization across different sectors, regions and disciplines. The multidisciplinary approach focuses on the economic, political and institutional aspects of liberalization, as well as to a lesser extent on technological issues. As such, it constitutes a unique contribution as this broad overview is often lost in the sector specific, country-focused and purely disciplinary approaches prevalent in the current literature. Sectors explored include telecoms, the Internet, energy and transport, while the truly global perspective incorporates unique case studies from an array of developed and developing countries including the US, China, India and the EU.
Most existing Emissions Trading Systems (ETSs) include their own specific Price Control Mechanism (PCM): a design feature which steers the allowance price into a desired range. Divergences along five key [...]
The environmental ambition of an ETS may be assessed considering three dimensions: emissions coverage, stringency and determinacy. Allowance prices are an imperfect metric for the stringency of an ETS. Yet, [...]
This report was prepared to inform the Carbon Market Policy Dialogue (CMPD) between the European Commission, as the regulator of the EU Emissions Trading System, and the regulatory authorities for [...]
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