In the spring of 2007, the European Council agreed on a policy vision with three components: the green component (to promote a sustainable energy economy), the market component (to enhance efficiency and competition) and the security of supply component (to secure the EU’s energy supply). With regard to these three components, distinct implementing paths and action lines were developed. The existence of separate implementing paths entails some coordination issues. Coordination is necessary here to guarantee that the three action lines are integrated into a consistent EU Energy Policy. EU Energy policy needs to get smarter and align the incentives deriving from the three components to produce an integrated vision that moves beyond 2020. 22 policy recommendations can then be formulated for the most relevant energy-related issues which the EU is facing nowadays.
Additionality is a key requirement for the renewables based electricity to be used by electrolysers to produce renewable hydrogen. Additionality could be defined as the requirement that renewables-based electricity used [...]
China has always upheld multilateralism and has advocated the use of multilateral mechanisms to jointly address global climate change issues. This paper discusses what China does and why, and how [...]
Around 75% of European cargo transport operations in terms of ton-kilometers are performed by trucks, which, in turn, entail massive environmental and societal impacts. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, road [...]