The paper develops the concept of competition law-ization of EU regulation and applies it to current and forthcoming rules of EU energy regulation. "Competition law-ization" concerns the institutional structure of EU regulation. It consists of three aspects, namely (i) direct access to regulatees, i.e. the ability to speak directly to undertakings without the intermediation of Member States' structures, or with as little intermediation as possible; (ii) networked enforcement, i.e., the creation of an orderly European apparatus that enforces EU law under the direction of the Commission; and (iii) private enforcement, i.e. the ability of private undertakings and individuals to enforce their rights, thus effectively patrolling the market. These aspects have been imported from competition law into EU telecommunication regulation and the result has been successful. The paper argues that competition law-ization could remedy some of the shortcomings of liberalization in the European energy sector. The recent proposals to reform EU energy regulation are assessed in the light of competition law-ization. Overall, the proposals can be seen as going in the direction of competition law-ization, but unbundling is criticized as a one-off structural measure that is incapable of giving rise to a permanent structure of rights that can be conducive to more effective regulation.
The EU ETS with companion policies is more robust than relying solely on either regulatory or carbon-pricing interventions. Policies should be developed to account for the disparate impacts of the [...]
Customers are expected to play a fundamental role in the transition to a decarbonised and digitalised energy system. However, experience so far suggests that customer engagement in energy markets cannot [...]
This deliverable, which is part of the Horizon 2020 OneNet project, outlines the alignment activities carried out in OneNet Task 3.4, focusing on integrating the proposed electricity market concepts with [...]
Flexibility involves the adjustment of energy consumption or generation schedules to benefit the grid, for instance, providing services such as balancing, congestion management, and voltage control. Flexibility can be offered [...]