Article
New transactions in electricity : peer-to-peer and peer-to-x
19 November 2021
Economics of energy & environmental policy, 2021, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 41-55
Peer-to-peer and peer-to-x open a new world of transactions in the electricity sector. This world is characterised by the active involvement of new players, both small in size and non-professional in nature, and by new combinations of the activities carried out behind and in front of the meter. Peer-to-peer refers to transactions in which both the seller and the buyer are small in size and non-professional, whereas peer-to-x refers to transactions where only the seller is small and non-professional while the buyer is a different type of actor. Observations from the world of practice reveal the existence of multiple forms of peer-to-peer and peer-to-x transactions. The first part of the paper identifies six typical forms of transactions and illustrates them with concrete implementation cases. The second part simplifies such diversity of types and distinguishes only four families of transactions. The third shows the importance of three components which are essential to the functioning of this new world. They are the matching loop, as small players can-not sell or buy from other peers so easily; the pricing mechanism, as existing wholesale and retail markets exert pressure on incentives for activating peers; and the delivery loop, as peers must deliver via existing grids and system operators, except when trading entirely within private networks.
logo cadmus Read it on Cadmus

LATEST FSR PUBLICATIONS

Working Paper
A high penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) will deeply impact the management of electric power systems. To avoid costly grid reinforcements and the risk of load curtailment due to EV [...]
Other
The purpose of this article is to review the Commission's 'Fit for 55' package. It first summarises the Commission's proposals as succinctly as possible. It then analyses what is likely [...]
Working Paper
On 24 and 25 June 2021, the EUI held, both in Florence and online, the Summer Conference Effective remedies vis-vis digital platforms: competition policy and sector regulation at a crossroad. [...]
Other
Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, aviation was one of the fastest-growing sources of greenhouse gas emissions, directly accounting for about 3% of the EU’s total emissions and more than 2% [...]
Article
Energy communities dealing with renewable sources currently play a limited role in the European energy system. However, there is an increasing acknowledgement that they will represent an essential tool to [...]
Other
On 1st October, 2021, the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies (RSCAS) hosted a conference: “Digital Markets Act in the making: Challenges and potential of the new EU regulation on [...]

Join our community

To meet, discuss and learn in the channel that suits you best.

scroll

top