The importance of independent aggregators has been acknowledged in the recently adopted EU Clean Energy Package (CEP). The CEP obliges all Member States to develop a regulatory framework to allow these players to enter the market, but it leaves many of the details of implementation to the national level. In this paper, we take stock of current practices in regulating the contractual relationship between the supplier and the independent aggregator. The actions of an independent aggregator can cause an imbalance in a supplier’s portfolio, and suppliers have also asked for a compensation payment for forgone revenues. We find that the first issue has been handled with a perimeter correction in most countries, while the second issue is more controversial. The need for a compensation payment has been challenged and many different compensation models are being tested. We distinguish between the regulated, the corrected, and the contracted model. We conclude that more guidance is needed at EU-level for convergence on a more harmonized approach.
Additionality is a key requirement for the renewables based electricity to be used by electrolysers to produce renewable hydrogen. Additionality could be defined as the requirement that renewables-based electricity used [...]
China has always upheld multilateralism and has advocated the use of multilateral mechanisms to jointly address global climate change issues. This paper discusses what China does and why, and how [...]
Around 75% of European cargo transport operations in terms of ton-kilometers are performed by trucks, which, in turn, entail massive environmental and societal impacts. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, road [...]