A survey of Indian power-sector stakeholders on the subject of Energy Storage System (ESS) policy and regulatory issues is presented. The survey is divided into four sub-themes: the need for ESSs; ESSs in a network context; ESSs in the market; and ESSs in innovation. Respondents support the need for dedicated ESS regulation, including a definition of ESSs. In terms of networks, respondents support unrestricted ownership, and the development of dedicated grid connection standards and the provision of ancillary services for the network by ESSs; this would allow their participation in wholesale energy markets. However, opinions diverge on the level of ESS regulatory oversight needed for grid investment deferral. As far as power markets are concerned, respondents agree on the need for updating bidding formats, special treatment for ESSs regarding grid access charges to eliminate market entry barriers and to incentivise the operational versatility of ESSs. However, opinions diverge on the appropriate compensation mechanism to be applied for services provided by ESSs. There is an agreement on supporting innovative ideas such as P-to-everything (P2X) conversion and the use of regulatory sandboxes for enabling ESS.
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China has always upheld multilateralism and has advocated the use of multilateral mechanisms to jointly address global climate change issues. This paper discusses what China does and why, and how [...]
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