This paper is concerned with the policy choices and trends related to the institutional design of competition law and regulatory enforcement. It focuses on the different architectures that seek to reconcile and bring together the tools used to regulate the behaviour of undertakings ex ante and to sanction eventual abuses ex post. These architectures are becoming ever more sophisticated, as both the language and the goals of regulation and competition law reach new levels of convergence.
Additionality is a key requirement for the renewables based electricity to be used by electrolysers to produce renewable hydrogen. Additionality could be defined as the requirement that renewables-based electricity used [...]
China has always upheld multilateralism and has advocated the use of multilateral mechanisms to jointly address global climate change issues. This paper discusses what China does and why, and how [...]
Around 75% of European cargo transport operations in terms of ton-kilometers are performed by trucks, which, in turn, entail massive environmental and societal impacts. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, road [...]