Work Package 7 (WP7) of the Progress on Meshed HVDC Offshore Transmission Networks (PROMOTioN) Horizon 2020 project focuses on various legal, financial and economic aspects of developing an integrated offshore infrastructure. Task 7.2 focuses on the development of an economic framework for the offshore grid in terms of three building blocks, namely: planning, investment, and operation. 1. Offshore grid planning comprises three topics, namely: Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) methods, onshoreoffshore coordination, and public participation. 2. Offshore grid investment comprises four topics: cooperation mechanisms for renewable support, transmission tariffs, investment incentives, and Cross-Border Cost Allocation (CBCA) methods. 3. Offshore grid operation focuses on the balancing mechanism in the offshore wind context. This final report extends our intermediate report with the addition of three new topics: incentives, CBCA and the balancing mechanism. The remaining chapters are identical to the intermediate report. In this section, we provide a summary of the research that has been undertaken so far and the main conclusions from our analysis.
Additionality is a key requirement for the renewables based electricity to be used by electrolysers to produce renewable hydrogen. Additionality could be defined as the requirement that renewables-based electricity used [...]
China has always upheld multilateralism and has advocated the use of multilateral mechanisms to jointly address global climate change issues. This paper discusses what China does and why, and how [...]
Around 75% of European cargo transport operations in terms of ton-kilometers are performed by trucks, which, in turn, entail massive environmental and societal impacts. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, road [...]