In this paper we study the impact of different forms of access obligations on firms’ incentives to migrate from the legacy copper network to ultra-fast broadband infrastructures. We analyse three different kinds of regulatory interventions: geographical regulation of access to copper networks - where access prices are differentiated depending on whether or not an alternative fiber network has been deployed; access obligations on fiber networks and its interplay with wholesale copper prices; and, finally, a mandatory switch-off of the legacy copper network - to foster the transition to the higher quality fiber networks. Trading-o¤ the different static and dynamic goals, the paper provides guidelines and suggestions for policy makers’ decisions.
Additionality is a key requirement for the renewables based electricity to be used by electrolysers to produce renewable hydrogen. Additionality could be defined as the requirement that renewables-based electricity used [...]
China has always upheld multilateralism and has advocated the use of multilateral mechanisms to jointly address global climate change issues. This paper discusses what China does and why, and how [...]
Around 75% of European cargo transport operations in terms of ton-kilometers are performed by trucks, which, in turn, entail massive environmental and societal impacts. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, road [...]