Conclusion: Governance and Environment: Policy challenges and research questions
This chapter reviews the dilemmas associated with establishing collective goals in matters of sustainable development, then the properties of the mechanisms available for deciding to frame our behaviors, as well as the policy toolkit. Governmental intervention is both possible and legitimate when crises occur. In that case, the need for rapid and massive mobilization of means, leads citizens and stakeholders to accept major policy measures and reforms. The resulting emergency plans, however, seldom result in the optimal measures being implemented. Therefore, a major goal of human collectivities should be crisis avoidance. An important step in this direction is to rely more on both decentralized and reflexive governance, since all stakeholders should feel accountable. Moreover, this is also a way to better manage and generate the necessary knowledge.